Respecting the will of the Croatian nation and all its citizens, resolutely expressed in free elections, the Republic of Croatia is formed and is developing as a sovereign and democratic state in which the equality, freedoms and rights
of man and citizen are guaranteed and ensured, and their economic and cultural progress, and social welfare promoted.
The Republic of Croatia is a unitary, indivisible, democratic and social state. Power in the Republic of Croatia derives from the people and belongs to the people as a community of free and equal citizens.
Separation of powers
Government in the Republic of Croatia is organised on the principle of the separation of powers into:
The principle of the separation of power includes levels of mutual co-operation and reciprocal control of the holder of power prescribed by the Constitution and law.
The Croatian Parliament (Sabor) is the body of elected representatives of the people and is vested with the legislative power in the Republic of Croatia.
The Parliament also performs the function of control over the executive power.
Representatives in the Croatian Parliament are elected for a term of four years.
The Croatian Parliament can have no less than 100 and no more than 160 representatives, elected on the basis of direct universal and equal suffrage by secret ballot. The Croatian Parliament currently has 151 representatives.
Elections for representatives in the Croatian Parliament are held not later than 60 days after the expiry of a mandate or the dissolution of the Croatian Parliament.
The Croatian Parliament is a one house Parliament, with the Chamber of Counties ceasing to exist on 28 March 2002.
The Croatian Parliament has a President and one or more Vice-Presidents
The Croatian Parliament decides on the enactment and amendment of the Constitution, passes laws, adopts the state budget, decides on war and peace, passes acts which expresses the politics of the Croatian Parliament,
decides on the strategy of national security and the strategy of Defence for the Republic of Croatia, carries out civil control of the armed forces and security
affairs as specified by the Constitution.
1. The President of the Republic of Croatia
The President of the Republic of Croatia presents and represents the Republic of Croatia at home and abroad.
The President of the Republic cares for the regular and conformed operation, and stability of state power.
The President of the Republic is responsible for the defence of the independence and territorial integrity of the Republic of Croatia.
The President of the Republic is elected on the basis of direct universal and equal suffrage by secret ballot for a term of five years.Nobody can be elected President of the Republic more than two times.
2. The Government of the Republic of Croatia
The Government of the Republic of Croatia exercises executive power in conformity with the Constitution and law, with the organisation, operation and decision making regulated by the Law on the Government of the Republic of Croatia and its rule of procedures.
The Government of the Republic of Croatia: proposes laws and other acts to the Croatian Parliament, proposesthe state budget and final account, implements laws and other decisions of the Croatian Parliament, passes regulations for the implementation of laws, conducts foreign and internal politics, directs and controls the work of state administration, works on the economic growth of the country, directs the activities and expansion of public services, conducts other affairs as specified by the Constitution and law.
The Government is responsible to the Croatian Parliament
The Government shall consist of the Prime Minister, one or more Deputy Prime Ministers and Ministers.Pursuant to the decision of the Croatian Sabor which
expressed confidence in the Government of the Republic of Croatia, the President of the Republic shall issue an order appointing the Prime Minister, counter-signed by the Chairman of the Croatian Sabor; the order appointing the members of the Government shall be issued by the Prime Minister and counter-signed by
the Chairman of the Croatian Sabor.
Judicial power (Constitutional, Supreme and other courts)
Judicial power is exercised by courts.
Judicial power is autonomous and independent.
Courts administer justice on the basis of the Constitution and law.
The Supreme Court of the Republic of Croatia, as the highest court, ensures the uniform application of laws and the equality of all citizens.
The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Croatia consists of thirteen judges, selected by the Croatian Parliament for a term eight years from among outstanding jurists, especially judges, public prosecutors, lawyers and university professors of law.
The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Croatia
* decides on the conformity of laws with the Constitution
* decides on the conformity of other regulations with the Constitution and law, can assess the constitutionality of a law and the constitutionality and legality of other regulations which have expired if less than a year has
passed between the date of expiry and the date of the application
* decides on constitutional applications against individual decisions of state, administration and regional self-government bodies and other public authority bodies when the decisions interfere with human rights and basic freedom, as well as the rights of local self-government and administration bodies guaranteed by the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia
* follows the realisation of constitutionality and legality, informing the Croatian Parliament of any signs of unconstitutionality or illegality
* decides on jurisdictional disputes between the legislative, executive and judicial branches
* decides, in conformity with the Constitution, on the impeachability of the President of the Republic
* supervises the constitutionality of the programs and activities of political parties and can, in conformity with the Constitution, ban their work
* supervises the constitutionality and legality of elections and national referendums, and decides on electoral disputes which do not fall within the jurisdiction of courts
* performs other duties specified by the Constitution..
The formation of political parties is free.
The internal organisation of political parties must conform to
the basic constitutional democratic principles.
Parties must publicly account for the origin of its funds and properties.
Political parties who with their program or violent activity
tend towards undermining the democratic constitutional order
or threaten the survival of the Republic of Croatia are
non-constitutional. The Constitutional Court of the Republic
of Croatia decides on the non-constitutionality of a political party.
The position and financing of political parties is regulated by law.
Representatives of political parties in the Croatian Parliament:
* Democratic Centre (DC), 1 mandate
* Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), 66 mandates
* Croatian People's Party (HNS), 12 mandates
* Croatian Peasant Party (HSS), 9 mandates
* Croatian Social Liberal Party (HSLS), 2 mandates
* Croatian Party of Rights (HSP), 7 mandates
* Croatian Party of Pensioners (HSU), 3 mandates
* Istrian Democratic Assembly (IDS), 4 mandates
* Liberal Party (LS) - 1 mandates
* Democratic Union of Medjimurje(MDS), 1 mandates
* Primorje-Goranska Union (PGS) - 1 mandates
* Croatian Democratic Action Party (SDA HR), 1 mandates
* Social Democratic Party of Croatia (SDP) - 33 mandates
* Independent Democratic Serbian Party (SDSS), 3 mandates
* Representatives of national minorities, 7 mandates
The first Constitution of the Republic of Croatia was proclaimed on 22 December 1990.
f You have any questions about Croatian politics or need assistance, please do not hesitate to visit our Croatia Official Forum.
Freedom, equal rights, national and gender equality, love of peace, social justice, respect of human rights, inviolability of ownership, conservation of nature and the human environment, the rule of law and a democratic multiparty system are the
highest values of the constitutional order of the Republic of Croatia and form the basis for interpreting the Constitution.
In the Republic of Croatia, laws must conform with the Constitution, whilst other rules and regulations must conform with the Constitution and law.Everyone must abide by the Constitution and law, and respect the legal order of the Republic of Croatia.
services of the Republic of Croatia, calls referendums, carries out elections, appointments and relief of office in conformity with the Constitution and law, supervises the work of the Government of the Republic of Croatia and other holders of public powers responsible to the Croatian Parliament in conformity with the Constitution and law, grants amnesty for penal offences and conducts other